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Carotid Revascularization and Medical Management for Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis Trial

Official Title:

Carotid Revascularization and Medical Management for Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis Trial

Basic Trial Information

Phase Type Age Sponsor Protocol IDs Status
N/A Interventional 35 Years and older Thomas G. Brott, M.D. 13-004051
IDE: G130221
Enrolling patients

Study Design:

Principal Investigator

Professor Emeritus of Surgery
Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery

Clinical Research Coordinator

San Francisco VA Medical Center
(415) 221-4810 Ext. 2-4708 Phone
(415) 379-5534 Fax

Trial Summary

Carotid revascularization for primary prevention of stroke (CREST-2) is two independent multicenter, randomized controlled trials of carotid revascularization and intensive medical management versus medical management alone in patients with asymptomatic high-grade carotid stenosis. One trial will randomize patients in a 1:1 ratio to endarterectomy versus no endarterectomy and another will randomize patients in a 1:1 ratio to carotid stenting with embolic protection versus no stenting. Medical management will be uniform for all randomized treatment groups and will be centrally directed.


General Inclusion Criteria

     1. Patients ≥35 years old.
     2. Carotid stenosis defined as:
    - Stenosis ≥70% by catheter angiography (NASCET Criteria); OR
    - by DUS with ≥70% stenosis defined by a peak systolic velocity of at least 230
       cm/s plus at least one of the following:
             an end diastolic velocity ≥100 cm/s, or
             internal carotid/common carotid artery peak systolic velocity ratio ≥4.0, or
             CTA with ≥ 70% stenosis, or
             MRA with ≥ 70% stenosis.
     3. No medical history of stroke or TIA ipsilateral to the stenosis within 180 days of
         randomization. Life-long asymptomatic patients will be defined as having no medical
         history of stroke or transient ischemic attack and negative responses to all of the
         symptom items on the Questionnaire for Verifying Stroke-free Status (QVSS).18
     4. Patients must have a modified Rankin Scale score of 0 or 1 at the time of informed
     5. Women must not be of childbearing potential or, if of childbearing potential, have a
         negative pregnancy test prior to randomization.
     6. Patients must agree to comply with all protocol-specified follow-up appointments.
     7. Patients must sign a consent form that has been approved by the local governing
         Institutional Review Board (IRB)/Medical Ethics Committee (MEC) of the respective
         clinical site.
     8. Randomization to treatment group will apply to only one carotid artery for patients
         with bilateral carotid stenosis. Management of the non-randomized stenosis may be done
         in accordance with local PI recommendation. Treatment of the non-study internal
         carotid artery must take place at least 30 days prior to randomization, or greater
         than 44 days after randomization and 30 days after the study procedure is completed
         (whichever is longer).
     9. Carotid stenosis must be treatable with CEA, CAS, or either procedure.
General Exclusion Criteria

     1. Intolerance or allergic reaction to a study medication without a suitable management
     2. GI hemorrhage within 1 month prior to enrollment that would preclude antiplatelet
     3. Prior major ipsilateral stroke in the past with substantial residual disability (mRS ≥
         2) that is likely to confound study outcomes.
     4. Severe dementia.
     5. History of major symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage within 12 months that was not
         related to anticoagulation.
     6. Prior Intracranial hemorrhage that the investigator believes represents a
         contraindication to the perioperative or periprocedural antithrombotic and
         antiplatelet treatments necessary to complete endarterectomy or stenting per protocol.
     7. Current neurologic illness characterized by fleeting or fixed neurologic deficits that
         cannot be distinguished from TIA or stroke.
     8. Patient objects to future blood transfusions.
     9. Platelet count <100,000/microliter or history of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.
     10. Anticoagulation with Phenprocoumon (Marcumar®), warfarin, or a direct thrombin
         inhibitor, or anti-Xa agents.
     11. Chronic atrial fibrillation.
     12. Any episode of atrial fibrillation within the past 6 months or history of paroxysmal
         atrial fibrillation that is deemed to require chronic anticoagulation.
     13. Other high-risk cardiac sources of emboli, including left ventricular aneurysm, severe
         cardiomyopathy, aortic or mitral mechanical heart valve, severe calcific aortic
         stenosis (valve area < 1.0 cm2), endocarditis, moderate to severe mitral stenosis,
         left atrial thrombus, or any intracardiac mass, or known unrepaired PFO with prior
         paradoxical embolism.
     14. Unstable angina defined as rest angina with ECG changes that is not amenable to
         revascularization (patients should undergo planned coronary revascularization at least
         30 days before randomization).
     15. Left Ventricular Ejection fraction <30% or admission for heart failure in prior 6
     16. Respiratory insufficiency with life expectancy < 4 years or FEV1 <30% of predicted
     17. Known malignancy other than basal cell non-melanoma skin cancer. There are two
         exceptions to this rule: patients with prior cancer treatment and no recurrence for >5
         years are eligible for enrollment and cancer patients with life expectancy of greater
         than 5 years are eligible for enrollment.
     18. Any major surgery, major trauma, revascularization procedure, or acute coronary
         syndrome within the past 1 month.
     19. Either the serum creatinine is ≥ 2.5 mg/dl or the estimated GFR is < 30 cc/min.
     20. Major (non-carotid) surgery/procedures planned within 3 months after enrollment.
     21. Currently listed or being evaluated for major organ transplantation (i.e. heart, lung,
         liver, kidney).
     22. Actively participating in another drug or aortic arch or cerebrovascular device trial
         for which participation in CREST-2 would be compromised with regard to follow-up
         assessment of outcomes or continuation in CREST-2.
     23. Inability to understand and cooperate with study procedures or provide informed
     24. Non-atherosclerotic carotid stenosis (dissection, fibromuscular dysplasia, or stenosis
         following radiation therapy).
     25. Previous ipsilateral CEA or CAS.
     26. Ipsilateral internal or common carotid artery occlusion.
     27. Intra-carotid floating thrombus.
     28. Ipsilateral intracranial aneurysm > 5 mm.
     29. Extreme morbid obesity that would compromise patient safety during the procedure or
         would compromise patient safety during the periprocedural period.
     30. Coronary artery disease with two or more proximal or major diseased coronary arteries
         with 70% stenosis that have not, or cannot, be revascularized.
Specific carotid endarterectomy exclusion criteria
Patients who are being considered for revascularization by CEA must not have any of the
following criteria:

     1. Serious adverse reaction to anesthesia not able to be overcome by pre-medication.
     2. Distal/intracranial stenosis greater than index lesion.
     3. Any of the following anatomical: radical neck dissection; surgically inaccessible
         lesions (e.g. above cervical spine level 2 (C2)); adverse neck anatomy that limits
         surgical exposure (e.g. spinal immobility - inability to flex neck beyond neutral or
         kyphotic deformity, or short obese neck); presence of tracheostomy stoma; laryngeal
         nerve palsy contralateral to target vessel; or previous extracranial-intracranial or
         subclavian bypass procedure ipsilateral to the target vessel.
Specific Carotid Artery Stenting Exclusion Criteria
Patients who are being considered for revascularization by CAS must not have any of the
following criteria:

     1. Allergy to intravascular contrast dye not amenable to pre-medication.
     2. Type III, aortic arch anatomy.
     3. Angulation or tortuosity (≥ 90 degree) of the innominate and common carotid artery
         that precludes safe, expeditious sheath placement or that will transmit a severe loop
         to the internal carotid after sheath placement.
     4. Severe angulation or tortuosity of the internal carotid artery (including calyceal
         origin from the carotid bifurcation) that precludes safe deployment of embolic
         protection device or stent. Severe tortuosity is defined as 2 or more ≥ 90 degree
         angles within 4 cm of the target stenosis.
     5. Proximal/ostial CCA, innominate stenosis or distal/intracranial stenosis greater than
         index lesion.
         Excessive circumferential calcification of the stenotic lesion defined as >3mm
         thickness of calcification seen in orthogonal views on fluoroscopy.(Note: Anatomic
         considerations such as tortuosity, arch anatomy, and calcification must be evaluated
         even more carefully in elderly subjects (≥ 70 years).)
     6. Target ICA vessel reference diameter <4.0 mm or >9.0 mm. Target ICA measurements may
         be made from angiography of the contralateral artery. The reference diameter must be
         appropriate for the devices to be used.
     7. Inability to deploy or utilize an FDA-approved Embolic Protection Device (EPD).
     8. Non-contiguous lesions and long lesions (>3 cm).
     9. Qualitative characteristics of stenosis and stenosis-length of the carotid bifurcation
         (common carotid) and/or ipsilateral external carotid artery, that preclude safe sheath
     10. Occlusive or critical ilio-femoral disease including severe tortuosity or stenosis
         that necessitates additional endovascular procedures to facilitate access to the
         aortic arch or that prevents safe and expeditious femoral access to the aortic arch.
         "String sign" of the ipsilateral common or internal carotid artery.
     11. Angiographic, CT, MR or ultrasound evidence of severe atherosclerosis of the aortic
         arch or origin of the innominate or common carotid arteries that would preclude safe
         passage of the sheath and other endovascular devices to the target artery as needed
         for carotid stenting.

Detailed Description

Prevention of stroke involves managing and treating risk factors. Most strokes are caused
when blood flow to a portion of the brain is blocked. One place this often happens is in the
carotid artery. This blockage is called atherosclerosis or hardening of the arteries.
The purpose of this trial is to determine the best way to prevent strokes in people who have
a high amount of blockage of their carotid artery but no stroke symptoms related to that
blockage. Each eligible participant will be evaluated to determine which procedure(s) is best
for him/her. All participants will receive intensive medical treatment. In addition,
participants will be randomized to receive the selected procedure or not.
The trial will be conducted in the United States and Canada by physicians carefully selected
on their ability to perform the procedures at low risk. Another key component of the trial is
that important stroke risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes, high cholesterol,
cigarette smoking, physical activity, and diet will be managed intensively. Participants will
remain in the study for 4 years.


Final eligibility is determined by the health professionals conducting the trial and the protocol approved by the Committee on Human Resources (CHR) at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). The Patient Consent Form for this trial is available upon request. For more information about this trial, please see the full posting at

Information about this trial was obtained from the NIH Clinical Trials website, on 11/17/2017. UCSF specific information including the PI (Principal Investigator), trial enrollment status, and UCSF Study ID, supplement the study posting.
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